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Nedelja, 17. Februar 2019

About the region

Juzni Banat
South Banat Region is situated in the north eastern Serbia, on the total area of 4.245 km2. It consists of eight Municipalities: Alibunar, Bela Crkva, Vršac, Kovačica, Kovin, Opovo, Pančevo and Plandište. Regional  seat is the town of Pančevo.

Across the Pancevo bridge the road leads from the direction of Belgrade to the region, again across the Danube river from the direction of Smederevo, from neighboring Romania across two border crossings, one is near Vršac and the other one is near Bela Crkva. And from Zrenjanin ,one can arrive choosing between one of the three existing directions, one across Opovo, the other one across Sečanj to Dobrica and the third also across Sečanj all the way to Plandište. Total road length in the region is 982km.

History

As a result of numerous movements of the tribes which were once present here and as a result of their constant replacements on this territory this region is known as one with a lot of various cultures.
Stone tombs found near Vršac, indicate that there had been a temporal residence of Paleolithic hunters there and historians agree that more permanent settlements were started to be formed in Neolith. Starcevo culture indicates this.

By the end of the first century B.C. along came the Romans; territory being on the very edges of their empire it was not before long that it was taken over by the “Dačani”, the Sarmatians, the Huns, the Goths until the arrival of the “Avari” and finally the Slavs.

The intense historical changes led to creating Hungarian state under their government territory remained for more than 6 centuries. From 1552 to 1817 the territory of South Banat was occupied by the Turks, and they were replaced by the Austrians later on.

After the World War II South Banat becomes a part of: the Kingdom of Serbians, Croats and Slovenians, later a part of the Yugoslavia and finally a part of the Republic of Serbia.

There is a unique two-towered church in Pančevo, a symbol of ethnic unity of Serbian people on both sides of the Danube.

This is the region where Mihailo Pupin, Jovan Sterija Popovic, Jovan Jovanovic Zmaj and many     other distinguished people were born and lived .


Geography data

Region of South Banat is a plain area with wave-built planes and plateaus. All the hills in the region are in fact hill-sides of the “Karpati” mountain range and there are also Vrsac mountains there, with  “Gudurica” the highest mountain top 641 m above the sea level which makes Vršac mountains the highest (mountain) area in the entire Vojvodina.


DeliblatoDeliblato, a well known sandy terrain, is a true nature’s gift which was a desert in the middle of Europe until 200 years ago. It is located in the southeast part of Banat, with average length of 35 km and average width of 15 km, which makes total area of 350 km 2. Deliblato gives enormous tourist opportunities with many dunes and valleys, vegetation, pastures, vineyards and it is a true paradise on the earth for passionate hunters. Bela Crkva valley is well known; the ideal conditions for the grapevine cultivation are achievable on its elevations for all sorts of fruits, pears and apples mostly.


The climate is temperate-continental, with long and snowy winters and warm and hot summers. July is the warmest with average temperature of about 22 degrees, while January is the coldest with average of about 1 degree. Region has the least amount of rainfall in entire country, about 650 mm, twofold less than average. Famous wind “Košava“is also one of the region’s characteristics; it occurs early in the spring and in late the fall.

Waters and soils

In the region there are the following river flows: the Danube, the Tamiš, the Nadel, the Begej, the Brzava, the Rojga, the Moravica, the Karaš and the Nera. Along with these rivers the well known canal Danube-Tisa-Danube also flows through the region.


TamisWith their attractiveness and with their sportive-recreational function lakes -Bela Crkva lakes and Vršac lake especially stand out. These lakes are often referred to as “the pearls of Banat”, because of their limpidity and specific color of their waters. They are located near the city Bela Crkva and were named after it.

Soil structure mostly consists of fertile soil or meadowy mould (56%) which keeps obtaining the optimal proceeds, quarter of soil is hydro-morphological and 10% is salted soil.
Agricultural area covers 340,104 ha (both public and individual economies).


Flora and fauna

Vegetation and animal world is extremely diverse, esspecially in „Deliblatska peščara“(Deliblato sands). Total area of woodland is 22,715 hectares; preponderate sorts are acacia (locust), pines, poplars and birches. There are also some bushy sorts (juniper, hawthorn) as well as numerous herbaceous sorts (peony, wormwood, ever-flower, spikenard…).
Being rich with animal species this region is ideal for deer hunting and also for hunting on does, wild boars, rabbits and fox.
Fish fauna is also abundant (pike, carp, catfish, perch …).


Population

According to Statistics Institute data from 2002, in South Banat there were 313,937 inhabitants, which makes 15.45% of total number of inhabitants in Vojvodina. Municipality of Pančevo has the highest number of inhabitants, 127,162 and municipality of Opovo has the lowest 11,016. Population density per kilometre varies with average of 75 inhabitants per square kilometre.The least populated municipality is Plandište(35) and the most populated one is Pančevo (170).


Throughout centuries various nations replaced one another on the South Banat territory. Permanent and especially noticeable were the migration movements by the end of the 14th century and in the beginning of the 15th century, particularly massive were those of the Serbian population coming from Kosovo, from the area around the Morava river-basin and mountain Dinara after the Turkish subdue and their settling in the southern parts of Vojvodina, especially in the South Banat. By the end of the 17th century and during the18th and the19th century settling in by the Serbian population continues along with the planned colonization of the Germans and settling in by the Hungarians, the Slovaks, the Ruthenians and the Romanians. All of this led to the situation in which the area until then occupied mostly with Serbian population became ethnically diversified and that situation remained until this very day. Because of the economical reasons and the World War I and II migration movements is a continuing process in the 20th century also. Most of the population that emigrated was German but there were Jewish, Hungarian, Czech emigrants too, their estates were occupied by families that came from poor mountain areas and regions devastated in war. Migration movements still go on and that proves this region to be interesting and appealing for all nationalities no matter what their ethnical, religious or language traits are like.


Currently, South Banat consists of diverse ethnical structure of population. According to the latest register from 2002., 70.28% out of total number of inhabitants are the Serbs; the Rumanians 21,618(6.89%), the Hungarians 15,444(4.92%), the Slovakians 15,212(4.84). the Macedonians 7,636(2.43%), the Gypsies 6,268(2%), undecided 6,207(1.98), the Yugoslavs 5,687(1.81%), unknown 5,413(1.72), the Croats 2,140(0.68), the Montenegrins 1,715(0.55%), the Czechs 1,199(0.38). Besides this numbered members of nationalities there are also  the Albanians, the Bulgarians, the Muslims, the Germans, the Slovenians and the others in total of 4,757 in other words 1.51% out  of  total percentage  of population.


Municipalities

ALIBUNAR

Alibunar is located in the central part of South Banat. Municipality is being intersected by two significant traffic lines: Belgrade-Alibunar- Vršac- Romania highway is one of them and the other one is a railroad track extending in the same direction.
Alibunar is an old settlement mentioned in a monument “Kruševski spomenik” as “Alijina voda”.
The most developed sector is agriculture. The agricultural, industrial combine in Banatski Karlovac is well known as well as the building materials industry and the meat product factory. Widely famous “Deliblatska Peščara” is near by, known as the “Sahara of Europe”; since 1962 beekeepers’ gathering is being held in it.

Total area:  602 km2
Number of settlements:  10
Number of inhabitants: 22,954
Total number of employed: 3,812   
Employed in firms,institutions,cooperative societies and the other oranizations: 82.1%
Self-employed people: 17.9%
Net salary per employee:
National income per capita: 55,394 dinars
Agricultural area (both public and individual farms): 51866 hectare
Total woodland area: 1,923ha
Overall road lenght: 82km

BELA CRKVA

Bela Crkva lies in a beautiful, spacious valley of the Nera river,on the very southeast of Vojvodina, bordered by the „Karpati“ branches, and opened on the west towards the Panonial lowland. Distance from Belgrade is less than 100 km. The courses of the Danube, the Nera, the Karaš and the canal Danube-Tisa-Danube are near by, as well as more than one crystalclear lakes, because of this Bela Crkva is often  called „ Venice of Vojvodina“.
Considering this region is extremely suitable for orcharding and winegrowing, dominating branch is agriculture, fruit-growing and wine growing in particular.

Total area: 353km2
Number of settlements: 14
Number of inhabitants: 20,367
Total number of employed: 4,094
Employed in firms, institutions, cooperative societies and other organizations: 69.9%
Self-employed people :30.1%
Net salary per employee:
National income per capita: 50,827 din
Agricultural areas (both public and individual farms): 27,230 ha
Total woodland area : 2,730 ha
Overall road lenght: 86 km

VRŠAC

Vršac, one of the cities with the longest tradition, is located in the southeast, on the very edge of Panonian  depression. It lays northeast of Belgrade on 83rd kilometer of the international road that leads to Romania, from which it is remoted 14 kilometeres.
Total area:    800 km2
Number of settlements:  24
Number of inhabitants:  54,369
Total number of employed:  12,723
Employed in firms, institutions, cooperative societies:    88.0%
Self-employed people: 12%
Net salary per employee:
National income per capita    :  123,547 din
Agricultural area (both public and individual farms):  64,006 ha
Total woodland area:   6,434 ha
Overall road length:   255 km

KOVAČICA

Kovačica is located in a mild, fruitful southeast part of Vojvodina; distance from Belgrade is 47 km. As a metropolis of today’s natural art, predominantly populated with the Slovaks, Kovačica attracts art lovers from all over the world. Especially attractive are the painting exhibitions that are being held in the art Gallery as well as the independent ones and home-exhibitions. In Idvor there is a Memorial museum, a sculpture and a house where the scientist Mihajlo Pupin was born .
Dominating sector is agriculture, and fishery, hunting grounds and a sugar factory are developed as well.
Total area:  419 km2
Number of settlements:  8
Number of inhabitants:  27,890
Total number of employed: 3,932
Employed in firms, institutions, cooperative societies:    78.9%
Self-employed people:  21.1%
Net salary per employee: 
National income per capita:  57,762 Dinars
Agricultural area (both public and individual farms):  36,608 ha
Total woodland area:  39 ha
Overall road length:  74 km

KOVIN

Kovin is in the South 0f Banat, Kovin borders on west with the municipality of Pančevo on north with municipalities Alibunar and Vršac, on east with Bela Crkva and on the south with the Danube. 50 km far away from Belgrade and 13 km from Smederevo. Kovin used to be a citadel, which was mentioned in 1053 for the first time as „Castrum Cave“.
In Kovin the most developed business sectors are: transportation, sales, metal industry, agriculture, construction industry.

Total area:  730 km2
Number of settlements:  10
Number of inhabitants:  36,802
Total number of employed:  7,774
Employed in firms, institutions, cooperative societies:  63.4%
Self-employed people:  36.6%
Net salary per employee: 
National income per capita:  60,072 Dinars
Agricultural areas (both public and individual):  45,591 ha
Total woodland area:  10,266 ha
Overall road length:  111km

OPOVO

Opovo is 30 km far away from Belgrade, on a road Belgrade- Zrenjanin- Kikinda. Nearby is the Tamiš. Opovo is a place of birth of the famous painters Jovan Popović and Stevan Milosavljenić. Remarcably decorated park gallery is in the center of a village, the sculptures of well known artists are exhibited in it. Agricultural production is the main characteristic in this area, with an accent on gardening and fishery as well.

Total area:  203 km2
Number of settlements:  4
Number of inhabitants:  11,016
Total number of employed: 1,780
Employed in firms, institutions, cooperative societies:  45.2%
Self-employed people:  54.8%
Net salary per employee:
National income per capita:  60,467 Dinars
Agricultural areas (both public and individual farms):  16,738 ha
Total woodland area:  71 ha
Overall road length: 65 km

PANČEVO

Pančevo not far away from the Danube, on the Tamiš river, is one of the largest cities in Vojvodina. It is located in proximity of Belgrade and represents an intersection with railroad connections leading to Belgrade, Zrenjanin, Kovin and Smederevo.
Pančevo is an administrative center of Southbanat region, a city with a remarcable past, present and future. Monuments are being perserved in the National Museum, the Hystorical Archieve, churches „Uspenska“(Resurrection) and „Preobraženska“(Transfiguration).
Along with agriculture and industry, the oldest brewery in the Balkans „Weifert brewery“ early occured- it was founded in 1722.
In Pančevo chemical industry is highly developed, refining of oil, food industry, metallurgy.
Total area:  755 ha
Number of settlements:  10
Number of inhabitants:  127,162
Total number of employed:  34,771
Employed in firms, institutions, cooperative societies:  83.1%
Self-employed people:  16.9%
Net salary per employee
National income per capita:  131,176 Dinar
Agricultural areas (both public and individual farms):  63,820 ha
Total woodland area:  1,085 ha
Overall road lenght:  146 km

PLANDIŠTE

Plandište is one of the borderline cities. The border leans on the Danube-Tisa-Danube canal, which creates a possibility for development in water transportation. A large number of castles were built - summer residences, with beautiful parks. According to their style they mostly belong to classicism/castle “Kapetanovo”, castle on Jagodić, two of them near Stari Lec and one in Hajdučica. In large areas which were heaths once the occurrence of petroleum and oil is detected. Agriculture is highly developed, milling industry, production of bricks and tiles also. A lot of hunting areas are present in the surroundings, while fishery is developed in area around the Danube-Tisa-Danube canal, the Brzava and the Moravica.
Total area:  383 km
Number of settlements:  14
Number of inhabitants: 13,377
Total number of employed:  2,615
Employed in firms,institutions, cooperative societies:  81.4%
Self-employed people:  18.4%
Net salary per employee
Net income per capita:57,979
Agricultural areas (both public and individual farms):  34,245 ha
Total woodland area:  167 ha
Overall road lenght:  163 km

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